All You Need to Know About Knee Replacement

knee replacement procedure details

Introduction: What is Knee Replacement Surgery

The simple answer to what is knee replacement surgery, also referred to as knee arthroplasty, is a medical operation performed to reduce pain and restore function in individuals with severely damaged knee joints. When conservative therapy fails, this surgery includes replacing an ailing knee joint with an artificial one known as a prosthesis.

Those who have osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or post-traumatic arthritis are the most prone knee replacement candidates. These conditions cause the original joint to deteriorate, resulting in excruciating pain and limited mobility. When the femur, tibia, and patella of the knee joint are considerably weakened due to accident or illness, knee replacement becomes a possible option. The damaged sections of the bones and cartilage are removed during the procedure, creating room for the implantation of metal and plastic components that mimic natural knee movement. The metal components are often composed of long-lasting materials such as titanium or cobalt-chromium alloy, with a plastic spacer inserted between them to allow for smooth articulation.

Types of Knee Replacement Surgery

There are several types of knee replacement surgery:

  • Total Knee Replacement (TKR):

It is the most frequent form of knee replacement surgery. It entails using prosthetic components to replace both sides of the knee joint. Damaged femur and tibia cartilage and bone are removed and replaced with metal implants, with a plastic spacer put between them to allow for smooth mobility.

  • Partial Knee Replacement (PKR):

Only the damaged section of the knee joint is replaced in this treatment. It is a more conservative method that is appropriate for people who have arthritis in only one compartment of the knee. PKR may have benefits such as faster recovery time and more natural knee movement.

  • Revision Knee Replacement:

It is required when a previous knee replacement suffers from wear, injury, or failure. Orthopaedic doctors replace or repair artificial joint components during this surgical technique to restore function. It is a difficult technique that is usually reserved for dealing with problems or replacing worn-out components.

  • Kneecap Replacement (Patellofemoral Arthroplasty):

Patellofemoral Arthroplasty is a surgical technique that replaces the kneecap, patella, and a part of the femur to treat isolated patellofemoral arthritis. It provides focused comfort for people with patellofemoral compartment joint degeneration. This surgery tries to restore functioning and relieve discomfort by treating the damaged region individually.

  • Revision or Complex Knee Replacement:

This procedure is used when an existing knee replacement has to be altered or replaced. It is a more complex operation that may include correcting loosening, instability, or infection following a previous surgery.

Average Cost of  Getting Knee Replacement Surgery Done

The average total knee replacement cost is around INR 2,50,000 in India. However, these estimates may alter over time, and expenses may vary by location or country. It is necessary to contact healthcare professionals, including surgeons and insurance companies, to obtain precise and up-to-date estimated costs based on your specific circumstances and coverage. Furthermore, healthcare systems and expenditures may change from one city to the next.

How Do You Know if You Need a Knee Replacement?

Several symptoms indicate the requirement for knee replacement surgeries. The primary ones are as follows:

  • Persistent Pain: Experiencing knee discomfort, whether at rest or during activities, that is refractory to conservative therapies such as medicines, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes may indicate the need for a full assessment by a healthcare expert.
  • Limited Mobility: Difficulties in everyday activities owing to a decreased range of motion or stiffness in the knee joint need additional evaluation to investigate any underlying concerns that may impair total joint function.
  • Stiffness: Morning stiffness or inflexibility in the knee, particularly after inactivity, may indicate possible joint injury. Consultation with a healthcare practitioner is essential for an accurate diagnosis and proper treatment choices, which may involve knee replacement in severe situations.
  • Swelling and Inflammation: The appearance of persistent knee swelling and inflammation that is not eased by rest or drugs may signal an underlying and potentially worsening joint condition that requires thorough evaluation.
  • Joint Deformity: Visible misalignment or deformity in the knee joint may indicate extensive joint deterioration, highlighting the urgency of obtaining competent medical guidance for a full assessment.
  • Failed Conservative Treatments: When non-surgical procedures fail to appropriately manage pain and improve functionality, healthcare practitioners may consider more intrusive techniques, such as surgical choices, customised to the individual's unique health conditions.

Precaution After Knee Replacement Surgery

  • Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation: Perform the specified physical therapy exercises diligently to methodically improve strength, flexibility, and total mobility. Pay close attention to your healthcare provider's rehabilitation plan since constant involvement is critical to a successful recovery.
  • Weight-Bearing Precautions: Strictly follow your surgeon's weight-bearing limits. During the early stages of recuperation, use assistive equipment such as crutches or a walker, gradually progressing to increasing weight-bearing activities under expert supervision.
  • Incision Care: Maintain a clean and dry atmosphere while meticulously caring for the surgical wound. Follow the wound care guidelines provided by your healthcare provider, including proper dressing changes and close monitoring for any indications of infection.
  • Avoid Certain Movements: Follow your surgeon's instructions to avoid activities that put undue pressure on your replacement knee, particularly high-impact sports or those that require deep knee bending. Following these guidelines is critical for guaranteeing the longevity and efficacy of the system.
  • Follow Activity Guidelines: Gradually reintroduce activities into your routine based on your surgeon's advice, avoiding severe undertakings until you have received specific permission from your healthcare team to ensure a gradual and safe return to regular activities.
  • Medication Management: Follow your healthcare provider's instructions for recommended drug regimens, including any blood thinners. Medication management that is consistent and precise is critical for supporting good recovery and avoiding problems.


Although knee replacement has helped many people regain mobility and reduce pain, it is critical to understand the procedure's intricacies, potential hazards, and the customised nature of healthcare decisions. Post-surgical rehabilitation is critical to optimise outcomes by encouraging strength, flexibility, and functioning recovery.

Individuals considering knee replacement should communicate openly with their healthcare professionals, balancing the pros and risks. Finally, the choice to have knee replacement surgery is the result of a joint effort between the patient and healthcare providers focused on increasing overall well-being and resuming a satisfying, active lifestyle.