ACL Reconstruction Surgery: Procedure, Cost, and Recovery

acl reconstruction surgery

Exploring the realm of orthopedic surgery reveals a diverse array of procedures dedicated to restoring mobility and functionality. Within this spectrum, ACL reconstruction surgery emerges as a pivotal solution for individuals grappling with the challenges of knee instability. An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, often stemming from sports activities or accidents, can significantly impede one's daily activities and overall quality of life.

This article navigates through what is ACL reconstruction surgery, providing insights into the procedure itself, delineating the individuals who stand to benefit the most, and shedding light on the various types of reconstruction methods available. Additionally, we will consider practical factors such as the associated costs and suitable locations for undergoing this transformative surgery.

What is ACL Reconstruction Surgery?

ACL reconstruction surgery is a specialized orthopedic procedure designed to address injuries to the ACL, which is a crucial ligament in the knee joint. It is situated deep within the knee. The ACL plays a pivotal role in providing stability by connecting the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). Its primary function is to control the back-and-forth motion of the knee.

The ACL is susceptible to injuries resulting from sudden stops through direct impact on the knee. Athletes engaged in sports like football and basketball are particularly prone to ACL injuries due to the dynamic and high-impact nature of these activities. ACL injuries can also occur in everyday scenarios, such as slips or accidents that subject the knee to excessive stress.

Who Might Require an ACL Reconstruction?

ACL injuries are common among athletes, particularly those engaged in sports that involve sudden stops, changes in direction, or jumping. However, anyone can experience an ACL injury due to accidents or trauma. Individuals who might benefit from ACL reconstruction surgery include those with:

  • Sports-related ACL tears
  • Recurrent instability in the knee
  • Inability to perform daily activities due to knee instability
  • Cases where conservative treatments have not provided sufficient relief

Types of ACL Reconstruction

Here are the few major ACL surgery types:


Autografts constitute a primary category of ACL reconstruction involving the utilization of the patient's tissue for the graft. This personalized approach aims to enhance the chances of graft acceptance and integration within the recipient's knee. The selection of autografts is diverse, with common sources including the patellar tendon, hamstring tendon, or quadriceps tendon.

Patellar Tendon Autograft:

  • Harvested from the patient's patellar tendon, situated below the kneecap.
  • It is known for its robustness and strength, providing excellent stability post-surgery.
  • Preferred for individuals with high physical activity levels or those requiring a quicker recovery.

Hamstring Tendon Autograft:

  • Derived from the patient's hamstring muscles, usually the semitendinosus or gracilis tendons.
  • Offers a less invasive option compared to the patellar tendon autograft.
  • It is considered suitable for athletes and individuals with a focus on flexibility.

Quadriceps Tendon Autograft:

  • Extracted from the quadriceps tendon above the kneecap.
  • Provides a versatile graft option with sufficient strength and thickness.
  • Suitable for a range of patients, including those with a preference for quadriceps tendon usage.


Allografts represent an alternative avenue in ACL reconstruction, involving the use of donor tissue typically sourced from a cadaver. This approach provides a viable option for individuals who may not be suitable candidates for autografts due to various reasons such as prior surgeries, inadequate tissue, or specific medical conditions.

Cadaveric Patellar Tendon Allograft:

  • Obtained from a cadaver's patellar tendon.
  • Offers an alternative for those who cannot undergo autograft procedures.
  • May be preferred in cases where preserving the patient's native tendons is essential.

Cadaveric Hamstring Tendon Allograft:

  • Harvested from the hamstring tendons of a cadaver.
  • Provides an allograft option for individuals with considerations against autografts.
  • Can be suitable for those prioritizing a less invasive approach.

Achilles Tendon Allograft:

  • Utilizes the Achilles tendon from a cadaver.
  • Offers an allograft alternative with a different tissue source.
  • This is considered in cases where preserving the patient's native patellar, hamstring, or quadriceps tendons is not feasible.

The procedure of ACL Surgery: Step-by-Step

Here is a step-by-step procedure of the ACL surgery:

  1. Preparation: Before surgery, the patient undergoes a thorough examination, including imaging tests, to assess the extent of the ACL injury.
  2. Anesthesia: The surgery is performed under either general or regional anesthesia to ensure the patient's comfort throughout the procedure.
  3. Graft Harvesting: If an autograft is chosen, the surgeon harvests the graft from the patient's own body, usually the patellar tendon, hamstring tendon, or quadriceps tendon.
  4. Graft Placement: The damaged ACL is removed, and the graft is meticulously placed in the knee joint, securing it with screws or other fixation devices.
  5. Recovery Room: Post-surgery, the patient is monitored in a recovery room to ensure a smooth transition from anesthesia.
  6. Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation plays a crucial role in the recovery of ACL surgery procedures. Physical therapy and exercises are prescribed to regain strength, flexibility, and functionality.

Average Cost of ACL Surgery in India

The ACL surgery cost in India is contingent on several factors, including the geographical location, choice of hospital, and the complexity of the procedure. In this diverse medical landscape, individuals can expect a range of costs associated with ACL surgery procedures, ensuring flexibility to accommodate various budgets.

Typically, ACL surgery costs in India fall within the range of INR 1,39,980 to INR 1,99,983 or even higher. It's important to recognize that this estimate encompasses a spectrum of considerations, such as pre-operative assessments, surgeon's fees, hospital charges, and post-surgery rehabilitation expenses.

Where Could You Get the ACL Surgery?

India boasts world-class medical facilities and skilled orthopedic surgeons, making it a preferred destination for different ACL surgery types. Hospitals in cities like Delhi, Mumbai, and Bangalore offer state-of-the-art facilities and a comprehensive range of orthopedic services. It's crucial to choose a reputable hospital and an experienced surgeon to ensure the best possible outcome.


As we draw the curtain on our exploration of what is ACL reconstruction surgery, it becomes evident that this procedure transcends the realm of medical interventions; it is a beacon of hope for those navigating the challenges posed by ACL injuries. From the meticulous procedure involving graft placement to the crucial decision of choosing between autografts and allografts, the journey toward knee stability is one marked by precision and individualized care.  

Choosing ACL reconstruction surgery is not merely a commitment to surgery but a commitment to rehabilitation, a crucial phase where strength and functionality are meticulously regained. India's status as a hub for medical excellence further emphasizes the importance of choosing the right location and professionals for this transformative journey.