Risks and benefits of the surgery on the patient


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Surgery is a medical procedure that may be considered for various reasons, from using it as a tool to diagnose a condition and confirm a diagnosis to using it as a treatment option to treat certain diseases.

Advantages of surgery

Some of the surgery benefits are discussed below:

  • The medical condition can be further assessed, and the diagnosis can be confirmed
  • Suspected lesions can be biopsied and tested further
  • Affected organs and tissue can be removed or repaired
  • Obstructions or blockages can be cleared
  • Blood vessels can be redirected
  • Tissue or organ transplantation can be done
  • An electronic or mechanical device can be implanted
  • Physical appearance can be improved or changed

Overall, a surgery can help:

  • Prevent or improve a medical condition
  • Treat the patient’s condition and relieve them from associated symptoms and discomfort
  • Improve patient’s quality of life
  • Increase life-expectancy

Side effects of surgery

There can be various post-surgery complications after a surgical procedure. Depending on the medical condition for which surgery is done, the complications of surgery may include the following:


This is the most common complication associated with any surgery. There are chances of infection post-surgery at the incision site or in other body parts. Your doctor will prescribe antibiotics to prevent infections. In certain cases, serious complications, such as sepsis, can occur.

Blood loss:

Mild blood loss is not a problem. However, severe blood loss during or after surgery can prove fatal.

Potential injury to nerves or blood vessels:

There are chances of this happening during surgery. It can result in numbness, weakness, or pain in the area around the incision. Permanent nerve or blood vessel damage is also possible.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE):

The formation of blood clots in the legs or lungs after surgery is possible. PE can prove fatal in some cases.

Failure of fixation:

This happens when screws, plates, or other implants fail to hold bones in place. The patient may experience pain, instability, and the need for further surgery.


There’s a possibility of suffering a stroke during surgery in older adults and people with certain medical conditions. This is a very rare but serious occurrence.

Complications related to anesthesia:

These include allergic reactions, respiratory problems, and heart problems. Such complications can happen during or after surgery.


The risk of death in surgery is very low. It increases with age and depends on the complexity of the surgery.

The risks are not just limited to the above complications; there can also be other side problems. Some surgical risks can be prevented by taking utmost care and following your doctor’s directions before and after surgery.

Impact of surgery on long-term health

When you plan surgery, do not hesitate to discuss the surgery risks and the benefits associated with the surgical procedure considered to treat your condition or disease. It is also important to consider the risk factors for surgical site infection. Prior understanding of the risks and benefits of the surgery can positively impact surgical outcomes and help with the complications after surgery.

Also, the effect of some surgeries may last for a lifetime. In this case, the disease or the condition may not recur again. However, some surgeries may not have a life-long effect. Some diseases may reoccur even after surgery is done, and a second surgery may be needed once the disease reoccurs. So, make sure to discuss with your doctor the long-term impact of the surgical procedure you have been recommended to undergo.